When there were relatively few computers in existence, computer code was shared by default. The legal and social ideas applied have been applied to source code by Free Software since 1985 and open source software since 1998. Some rights reserved licenses for non-code works have been created and are supported by the Creative Commons (wikipedia) nonprofit started in 2001. The free culture movement (wikipedia), a term first widely used in 2003, promotes the freedom to legally distribute and modify creative works.

There are quite a few social groups and movements that overlap with the ideas represented early on in software. DIY movement, maker movement as represented by Make magazine (2005) and independent production in general are some examples.

The Internet has enabled human social networks (wikipedia) with services (wikipedia) in new ways. A Pew Internet & American Life social networking fact sheet shows that 73% of American adults say they use social networking sites.


Science has spread unevenly since the age of enlightenment (wikipedia).

Scientific inquiry is generally intended to be as objective as possible in order to reduce biased interpretations of results. Another basic expectation is to document, archive and share all data and methodology so they are available for careful scrutiny by other scientists, giving them the opportunity to verify results by attempting to reproduce them. — Science (wikipedia)

Software is an increasingly important methodology in producing many results.

Proprietary software does not permit scrutiny and requires the user to trust the software on faith.

Politics is defined as a form of influence or persuasion. //

Higgs Boson example

In 2000 Bryan Pfaffenberger wrote an article Linux in Higher Education. Bryan later launched the STS wiki.